Soon afterwards, Henry of Lausanne was arrested, brought before the bishop of Toulouse, and probably imprisoned for life. Sunday mornings. Bernard is said to have flung off his own robe and began tearing it into strips to make more. by S. J. Eales of the Life and Works of St. Bernard Clairvaux from the ed. This letter made a positive impression on Harmeric, and in the Vatican. He appears to have received a good, standard education, at Chatillon-sur-Seine, which fitted him, most probably, for a life in the Church, which, of course, is exactly the direction he eventually took. Whether an ‘intention’ to create an Order of the Templar sort existed prior to the life of St Bernard himself is a matter open to debate. Three years later, Bernard was sent with a band of twelve monks to found a new house at Vallée d'Absinthe,[6] in the Diocese of Langres. [4], In the year 1119, Bernard was present at the first general chapter of the order convoked by Stephen of Cîteaux. Bernard invited William to the Mass which he celebrated in the Church of La Couldre. [12] Bernard lobbied the prelates on the evening before the debate, swaying many of them to his view. Clothe yourselves in sackcloth, but also cover yourselves with your impenetrable bucklers. Both the Henrician and the Petrobrusian faiths began to die out by the end of that year. Bernard answered the letter by saying that, if he had assisted at the council, it was because he had been dragged to it by force, replying: Now illustrious Harmeric if you so wished, who would have been more capable of freeing me from the necessity of assisting at the council than yourself? Abstract. In our opinion past researchers have generally failed to credit St Bernard with the pivotal role he played in the planning, formation and promotion of the infant Templar Order. It is a fact that the Templars venerated St Bernard from that moment on, until their own demise in 1307. © 1997-2020 | Managed by Pawn Marketing & Publishing Inc. Bernard was only nineteen years of age when his mother died. [8] In 1118 Trois-Fontaines Abbey was founded in the diocese of Châlons; in 1119 Fontenay Abbey in the Diocese of Autun; and in 1121 Foigny Abbey near Vervins, in the diocese of Laon. The son of Tocellyn de Sorrell, Bernard was born into a middle-ranking aristocratic family, which held sway over an important region of Burgundy, though with close contacts to the region of Champagne. [6], Many miracles were attributed to his intercession. Gerard of Clairvaux, Bernard's older brother, became the cellarer of Citeaux. Many stories exist regarding Bernard’s early years – his visions, torments and realisations. The din of arms, the danger, the labors, the fatigues of war, are the penances that God now imposes upon you. [16] His preaching, aided by his ascetic looks and simple attire, helped doom the new sects. [4] These include: Burgundian saint, abbot and theologian (1090-1153). [14], Having previously helped end the schism within the Church, Bernard was now called upon to combat heresy. He could be irascible and domineering at times, but seems to have been generally venerated and well liked by those around him. As in the First Crusade, the preaching led to attacks on Jews; a fanatical French monk named Radulphe was apparently inspiring massacres of Jews in the Rhineland, Cologne, Mainz, Worms, and Speyer, with Radulphe claiming Jews were not contributing financially to the rescue of the Holy Land. King and monk stood together, representing the combined will of earth and heaven. [19], Unlike the First Crusade, the new venture attracted royalty, such as Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of France; Thierry of Alsace, Count of Flanders; Henry, the future Count of Champagne; Louis's brother Robert I of Dreux; Alphonse I of Toulouse; William II of Nevers; William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey; Hugh VII of Lusignan, Yves II, Count of Soissons; and numerous other nobles and bishops. He is often cited for saying that Mary Magdalene was the Apostle to the Apostles. In 1141, at the urgings of Abelard, the archbishop of Sens called a council of bishops, where Abelard and Bernard were to put their respective cases so Abelard would have a chance to clear his name. For whatever reason St Bernard wrote the first ‘rules’ of the Templar Order. Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, was a monk who spent most of his time out of the cloister, a spiritual man who seemed always embroiled in politics and a man of peace who convinced thousands to fight and die for their faith. However, Innocent insisted on Bernard's company when he met with Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor. Germany had decided to support Innocent through Norbert of Xanten, who was a friend of Bernard's. Stones and trees will teach you that which you cannot learn from the masters.’. Certainly he was a fantastic organiser and possessed a charisma that few could deny. Abelard continued to press for a public debate, and made his challenge widely known, making it hard for Bernard to decline. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. St. Bernard died during the year of 1153 in Clairvaux, France. He did not pledge allegiance to Innocent until 1135. Bernard wrote to the pope a few days afterwards, "Cities and castles are now empty. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) may well represent the most important figure in Templarism. "[18], Bernard then passed into Germany, and the reported miracles which multiplied almost at his every step undoubtedly contributed to the success of his mission. In the year 1128 AD, Bernard participated in the Council of Troyes, which had been convoked by Pope Honorius II, and was presided over by Cardinal Matthew of Albano. The first to die was Suger in 1152, of whom Bernard wrote to Eugene III, "If there is any precious vase adorning the palace of the King of Kings it is the soul of the venerable Suger". At the age of nine, he was sent to a school at Châtillon-sur-Seine run by the secular canons of Saint-Vorles. Another time, an immense number of flies, that had infested the Church of Foigny, died instantly after the excommunication he made on them. Louis VI convened a national council of the French bishops at Étampes, and Bernard, summoned there by consent of the bishops, was chosen to judge between the rival popes. The monks of the abbey of Cluny were unhappy to see Cîteaux take the lead role among the religious orders of the Roman Catholic Church. The archbishop of Cologne and the archbishop of Mainz were vehemently opposed to these attacks and asked Bernard to denounce them. Innocent II, having been banished from Rome by Anacletus, took refuge in France. Bernard, the third of a family of seven children, six of whom were sons, was educated with particular care, because, while yet unborn, a devout man had foretold his great destiny. Though not yet 30 years old, Bernard was listened to with the greatest attention and respect, especially when he developed his thoughts upon the revival of the primitive spirit of regularity and fervour in all the monastic orders. Returning to Molesme, he left the government of the new abbey to Alberic of Cîteaux, who died in the year 1109. This he did, almost certainly, at the behest of Bernard and possibly as a result of promises he had made to this end at the time Bernard showed him the support which led to the Vatican. [5] During the absence of the Bishop of Langres, Bernard was blessed as abbot by William of Champeaux, Bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne. This he did, but when the campaign continued, Bernard traveled from Flanders to Germany to deal with the problems in person. In our opinion past researchers have generally failed to credit St Bernard with the pivotal role he played in the planning, formation and promotion of the infant Templar Order. Bernard's "Prayer to the Shoulder Wound of Jesus" is often published in Catholic prayer books. Cardinal Harmeric, on behalf of the pope, wrote Bernard a sharp letter of remonstrance stating, "It is not fitting that noisy and troublesome frogs should come out of their marshes to trouble the Holy See and the cardinals."[4]. This Bernard named Claire Vallée, or Clairvaux, on 25 June 1115, and the names of Bernard and Clairvaux soon became inseparable. Conrad III and his son Henry died the same year. He subsequently denounced the teachings of Peter Abelard to the pope, who called a council at Sens in 1141 to settle the matter. ST BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX (1090-1153), De precepto et dispensatione and other works, in Latin, DECORATED MANUSCRIPT ON VELLUM In the meantime Cluny established a reform, and Abbot Suger, the minister of Louis VI of France, was converted by the Apology of Bernard. There are many who believe that it was his championship of the Templars that made their survival possible. The Abbot of Clairvaux contested, as we have seen, the excessively intellectualistic method of Abelard who in his eyes reduced faith to mere opinion, detached from the revealed truth. Abelard sought a debate with Bernard, but Bernard initially declined, saying he did not feel matters of such importance should be settled by logical analyses. On the death of Honorius II, which occurred on 14 February 1130, a schism broke out in the Church by the election of two popes, Pope Innocent II and Antipope Anacletus II. He traveled to Sicily in 1137 to convince the king of Sicily to follow Innocent. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Tens of thousands heard his powerful preaching, and he personally attracted and helped many hundreds of men to follow a call to monastic life. This continued for the remainder of his life and may have demonstrated an inability on the part of his digestive system to cope with the severe diet enjoyed or rather endured by the Cistercians at the time. At the solicitation of William of St. Thierry, Bernard defended the order by publishing his Apology which was divided into two parts. hymns. To understand St Bernard’s importance to Cistercianism it is first necessary to study the Order in detail. of Mabillon, 4 … Nevertheless, the monastery at Clairvaux flourished as more and more disciples sought to place themselves under the leadership of St. Bernard. The first abbot of Clairvaux developed a rich theology of sacred space and music, writing extensively on both. These cookies do not store any personal information. Construction of the Monastery of St. Bernard de Clairvaux was begun in the year 1133 AD in Sacramenia, near Segovia in northern Spain. Principal penseur du courant cistercien, l'abbé Bernard de Clairvaux a largement influencé ses contemporains au XIIe siècle. He recalled the city of Milan to obedience to the pope as they had followed the deposed Anselm V, Archbishop of Milan. [31], The Couvent et Basilique Saint-Bernard, a collection of buildings dating from the 12th, 17th and 19th centuries, is dedicated to Bernard and stands in his birthplace of Fontaine-lès-Dijon.[32]. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. The regimen was so austere that Bernard became ill, and only the influence of his friend William of Champeaux and the authority of the general chapter could make him mitigate the austerities. St Bernard enters history in an indisputable sense at the age of 23 years, when together with a very large group of his brothers, cousins and maybe other kin, (probably between 25 and 30) he rode into the abbey of Citeaux, Dijon. The enthusiasm of the assembly of Clermont in 1095, when Peter the Hermit and Urban II launched the first crusade, was matched by the holy fervor inspired by Bernard as he cried, "O ye who listen to me! [29] Pope Pius VIII bestowed on him the title "Doctor of the Church". 1/4. He defended the rights of the Church against the encroachments of kings and princes, and recalled to their duty Henry Archbishop of Sens, and Stephen de Senlis, Bishop of Paris. A staunch supporter of an Augustinian view of the mystery of the Christian faith, St Bernard was fiercely opposed to ‘rationalistic’ views of Christianity. ‘Believe me, for I know, you will find something far greater in the woods than in books. In 1139, Bernard assisted at the Second Council of the Lateran. A Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation, Liber ad milites templi de laude novae militiae, representing the combined will of earth and heaven,, List of Latin nicknames of the Middle Ages: Doctors in theology, Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, patron saint archive, "Monuments historiques : Couvent et Basilique Saint-Bernard", "Sermon XIII: The Believers Concern, to pray for Faith", Audio on the life of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Database with all known medieval representations of Bernard, "Here Followeth the Life of St. Bernard, the Mellifluous Doctor", "Two Accounts of the Early Career of St. Bernard", Saint Bernard of Clairvaux Abbot, Doctor of the Church-1153, Lewis E 26 De consideratione (On Consideration) at OPenn, MS 484/11 Super cantica canticorum at OPenn, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America,, Pre-Reformation saints of the Lutheran liturgical calendar, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 12:18. His success in his studies won the admiration of his teachers. Bernard set out to convince these other regions to rally behind Innocent. His father, a knight named Tecelin, perished on crusade; and his mother Aleth, a daughter of the noble house of Mon-Bar, and a woman distinguished for her piety, died while Bernard was yet a boy. James Meeker Ludlow describes the scene romantically in his book The Age of the Crusades: A large platform was erected on a hill outside the city. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. On 31 March, with King Louis VII of France present, he preached to an enormous crowd in a field at Vézelay, making "the speech of his life". He wrote at this time his sermons on the Song of Songs. The European importance of Bernard, however, began with the death of Honorius (1130) and the disputed election that followed. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. He is labeled the "Mellifluous Doctor" for his eloquence. [28] He was the first Cistercian monk placed on the calendar of saints and was canonized by Alexander III 18 January 1174. The death of his contemporaries served as a warning to Bernard of his own approaching end. Bernard’s influence upon the princes, the clergy, and the people of his age was most remarkable. All of these were attributed to Bernard after his canonisation and therefore must surely be taken with a pinch of salt. He preached at the Council of Vézelay (1146) to recruit for the Second Crusade. i of Xenia Bernardina, Vienna, 1891. rolled over the fields, and was echoed by the voice of the orator: "Cursed be he who does not stain his sword with blood. [5], In 1098 Robert of Molesme had founded Cîteaux Abbey, near Dijon, with the purpose of restoring the Rule of St Benedict in all its rigour. [4], In the year 1128 AD, Bernard participated in the Council of Troyes, which had been convoked by Pope Honorius II, and was presided over by Cardinal Matthew of Albano. About the same time he wrote his work on Grace and Free Will. He then found Radulphe in Mainz and was able to silence him, returning him to his monastery.[21]. St. Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux one of the most illustrious preachers and monks of the middle ages, was born at Fontaines, near Dijon, in France. Bernard's letter to the archbishop of Sens was seen as a real treatise, "De Officiis Episcoporum." Gain access to 104 of his sermons—many of which examine the Song of Songs in vibrant detail. In our opinion past researchers have generally failed to credit St Bernard with the pivotal role he played in the planning, formation and promotion of the infant Templar Order. Bernard died at the age of 63, after 40 years as a monk. The influence of the Abbot of Clairvaux was soon felt in provincial affairs. [13], News came at this time from the Holy Land that alarmed Christendom. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. He was drawn into the controversy developing between the new monastic movement which he preeminently represented and the established Cluniac order, a branch of the Benedictines. Bernard praises it in his "De Laudibus Novae Militiae". He protested his profound esteem for the Benedictines of Cluny whom he declared he loved equally as well as the other religious orders. In particular he was a staunch opponent of the dialectician ‘Peter Abelard’, a man whom St Bernard virtually destroyed when Abelard refused to accept Bernard’s own criticism of his radical ideas. He may have undertaken this task personally and they were based, almost entirely, on the Order adopted by the Cistercians themselves. In a letter by Bernard to German Emperor Lothair regarding Antipope Anacletus, Bernard wrote, “It is a disgrace for Christ that a Jew sits on the throne of St. Peter’s.” and “Anacletus has not even a good reputation with his friends, while Innocent is illustrious beyond all doubt.”, Bernard wrote to Gerard of Angoulême (a letter known as Letter 126), which questioned Gerard's reasons for supporting Anacletus. The bishops made Bernard secretary of the council, and charged him with drawing up the synodal statutes. Main Cistercian monk and mystic, the founder and abbot of the abbey of Clairvaux and one of the most influential churchmen of his time. At the age of 22, while Bernard was at prayer in a church, he felt the calling of God to enter the monastery of Cîteaux. You can come and participate at whatever level you're comfortable with. St. Bernard de Clairvaux Church (Spanish: Monasterio Español de Sacramenia) is a medieval Spanish monastery cloister which was built in the town of Sacramenia in Segovia, Spain, in the 12th century but dismantled in the 20th century and shipped to New York City in the United States. [citation needed], John Calvin quotes Bernard several times[22] in support of the doctrine of Sola Fide,[23] which Martin Luther described as the article upon which the church stands or falls. Forbid those noisy troublesome frogs to come out of their holes, to leave their marshes ... Then your friend will no longer be exposed to the accusations of pride and presumption.[4]. [13] He was buried at the Clairvaux Abbey, but after its dissolution in 1792 by the French revolutionary government, his remains were transferred to Troyes Cathedral. Anacletus died of "grief and disappointment" in 1138, and with him the schism ended. Bernard later commented that Gerard was his most formidable opponent during the whole schism. His parents were Tescelin, lord of Fontaines, and Aleth of Montbard, both belonging to the highest nobility of Burgundy. The next day, after Bernard made his opening statement, Abelard decided to retire without attempting to answer. Hasten then to expiate your sins by victories over the Infidels, and let the deliverance of the holy places be the reward of your repentance." He defended the rights of the Church against the encroachments of kings and princes, and recalled to their duty Henri Sanglier, archbishop of Sens and Stephen of Senlis, bishop of Paris. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. He was a theologian, poet, orator, and writer. There he explains how the sins of the crusaders were the cause of their misfortune and failures.